The Black truffle or Black Périgord Truffle (Tuber melanosporum) is named after the Perigord region and grows exclusively under oak trees. Specimens can be found in late autumn and winter, reaching 7cm in diameter and weighing up to 100g.
The largest truffle market in France (and probably also in the world) is at Richerenches in Vaucluse, but the largest truffle market in southwest France is at Lalbenque in Quercy. These markets are busiest in the month of January when the black truffles have their highest perfume. Black truffles on these markets sell between €200 and 600 per kilogram ($130–$380 per pound), depending on the quantity and quality of the harvest.
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